Concept of economic base and superstructure sociology essay
This is true, for example, of the practice of parliamentary politics, though its internal oppositions are real. We can understand, from an ordinary historical approach, at least some of the sources of residual meanings and practices.
A number of Marxist scholars have disapproved the standpoint of the bourgeois scholars on the ground that they have misinterpreted or have not properly interpreted some words of Marx.
The new base works with the old superstructure. Indeed it is significant in our own period how very early this attempt is, how alert the dominant culture now is to anything that can be seen as emergent. Zotov and several other Marxist thinkers have drawn our attention to how in some cases superstructure works independently.
We have then to see, first, as it were a temporal relation between a dominant culture and on the one hand a residual and on the other hand an emergent culture. And, crucially, we have to revalue 'the base' away from [the] notion[s] of [either] a fixed economic or [a] technological abstraction, and towards the specific activities of men in real, social and economic relationships, containing fundamental contradictions and variations, and, therefore, always in a state of dynamic process.
Relationship between base and superstructure in marxist theory pdf
What this can show us here about the practice of analysis is that we have to break from the notion of isolating the object and then discovering its components. Building on this idea, Marx posed a new way of thinking about the relationship between thought and lived reality with his theory of the relationship between base and superstructure. It includes culture , ideology world views, ideas, values, and beliefs , norms and expectations , identities that people inhabit, social institutions education, religion, media, family, among others , the political structure, and the state the political apparatus that governs society. The orthodox Marxist thinkers accorded a straightforward mechanical causality to the relationship between the base and superstructure. I would say first that in any society, in any particular period, there is a central system of practices, meanings and values, which we can properly call dominant and effective. Objects and Practices Now I think the true crisis in cultural theory, in our own time, is between this view of the work of art as object and the alternative view of art as a practice. Regarding developments in the United States during this era roughly , Jenkins highlights the nature in which political parties and the political system itself are inherently designed to protect the economic base of capitalism and, in doing so, have become "increasingly centralized, coordinated, and synchronized over the past half-century.
Thus the pressures are real, but certain genuinely residual meanings and practices in some important cases survive. Thus we have to recognize the alternative meanings and values, the alternative opinions and attitudes, even some alternative senses of the world, which can be accommodated and tolerated within a particular effective and dominant culture.
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