To make a sheet of paper these substances are repeatedly soaked, pounded, washed, boiled, strained and bleached.
The papyrus is a form of rush which grows by the Nile. Houston Ed. The best quills were made from goose, swan or, later, turkey feathers and all are graded by the order in which they are fixed in the wing — the expert calligrapher would use the first feather.
By doing away with tokens, the clay tablets marked a third level of abstraction since the impressed markings no longer replicated a set of actual counters. Charlemagne AD had a profound influence on the development of the Latin script by establishing standards.
Quills were cured to harden them for use. The Greeks perfected the Semitic alphabet by adding letters for vowels—speech sounds in the articulation of which the breath channel is not blocked, like a, e, i, o, u.
The Brahmic family of India is believed by some scholars to have derived from the Aramaic alphabet as well. Out of these sacerdotal origins, the poet, the orator, and the historian were differentiated and secularized: the orator as the official lauder of the king or solicitor of the deity; the historian as the recorder of the royal deeds; the poet as the singer of originally sacred chants, the formulator and preserver of heroic legends, and the musician who put his tales to music for the instruction of populace and kings.
Then it is discovered - in Maine and Massachusetts in the s - that wood can be pulped and turned into paper the first newspaper to be printed on paper from wood pulp is the Boston Weekly Journal in January On the back we see him to the left of a kneeling prisoner who is about to be struck down by Narmer, who we see standing tall, wearing a crown.
The hollow shaft of these feathers holds the ink which flows to the tip, which is cut into the shaft, by capillary action.